Is Satan's real name Lucifer? Or should we call him Satan?
There's a lot of misunderstanding about Satan, his person, his name and his works. We know that at one time Satan was in heaven. He existed in the angelic realm as one of God's created angelic beings, however it should be noted that he was not simply an angel. There is a hierarchy of God's angelic creation — angels, archangels, cherubim and seraphim. Prior to his rebellion, Satan was the "anointed cherub that covereth [the throne of God]" (Ezekiel 28:14). He was a cherub who was honored with a very special service to God, above that of the angels. And yet, for Satan, it was not enough. He rebelled against God and fell from Heaven.
The Name: Lucifer
The word "lucifer" is found in only one verse in the King James and New King James Bibles. It is also found in other early English Bible translations, such as Bishops (1568), Geneva (1587), Webster's (1833), Brenton's English Septuagint (1844), Darby (1889) and Douay-Rheims (1899). In all of these Bibles, "lucifer" is capitalized, leading to its use a name for "the anointed cherub that covereth."
"How art thou fallen from heaven, O Lucifer, son of the morning! how art thou cut down to the ground, which didst weaken the nations!" (Isaiah 14:12)
The use of "lucifer" comes from the Latin translation of the Hebrew Scriptures in Jerome's Vulgate (late fourth century AD). In Latin, Isaiah 14:12 reads:
"quomodo cecidisti de caelo lucifer qui mane oriebaris corruisti in terram qui vulnerabas gentes."