The woolly mammoth is the poster child for the Ice Age just as the polar bear is the poster child for global warming. A woolly mammoth is likely a member of the elephant kind with long hair up to 1 meter long, a hump on its head and top of its back, and a sloping lower back. It was once thought the woolly mammoths did not have oil glands in their skin, disastrous in a cold climate, but better samples show they did have them. The woolly mammoth lived all across the mid and high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere during the Ice Age. Both the Ice Age and the many millions of woolly mammoths buried in Siberian permafrost, permanently frozen sediment, have been major uniformitarian mysteries for about 200 years4 despite numerous theories. Another type of mammoth, the Columbian mammoth, lived farther south in the United States and Central America.
End-Ice Age Extinctions
Woolly mammoths lived alongside woolly rhinoceroses, cave bears, cave lions, saber-tooth tigers, ground sloths, dire wolves, the "Irish elk," various types of horses, several types of bison, and many others. The Northern Hemisphere, even Siberia during the Ice Age, was considered to be like the Serengeti of Africa. Dale Guthrie of the University of Alaska in Fairbanks has called it the "mammoth steppe," characterized by a wet spring and a dry summer with tall grass. Except for the carnivores, the Ice Age animals were grazers.